• How Speech/Language Problems Can Affect Academic Performance? 

    Articulation: the production of speech

    Good articulation skills are required for verbal expression in all curricular areas. Multiple articulation errors can indicate a disordered phonological system which could impact on spelling and reading. Noticeable differences in speech production can have a negative impact on self-confidence, peer relationships, and vocational/career opportunities.

    Voice: pitch, quality, and volume

    Noticeable differences in vocal pitch, quality, and volume can affect self-confidence and peer relationships. Poor vocal hygiene can lead to lasting physical changes of the vocal folds. Voice differences can be a symptom of medical concerns. 

    Fluency: sound/syllable repetitions, blocking, use of conversation“fillers”   Dysfluency can inhibit participation in classroom and extracurricular activities and affect peer relationships. Vocational/career choices may be limited, despite the individual’s competency levels in non-speech areas. 

    Auditory Processing: attention, memory, auditory discrimination, sound blending, sequencing

    Deficits in these skills can affect performance in all academic areas that involve auditory reception and processing of curricular material and following oral directions. Spelling and reading may be affected by difficulty analyzing and applying the phonemic code. 

    Semantics: word knowledge including vocabulary, definitions, multiple meanings, concepts,categorization, comparisons, synonyms, antonyms, analogies

    All areas of communication (listening, speaking, reading, writing) are affected by weakness in semantic skills, thereby impacting on all areas of the curriculum. 


    Syntax: rules related to parts of speech, word order, and sentence construction

    The knowledge of grammatical rules is essential for receptive and expressive language. Deficits in syntax impact on the ability to comprehend, analyze, and produce language effectively. 

    Pragmatics: Social appropriateness of interactions, nonverbal communication, making inferences, executive functioning, critical thinking.

    Deficits in these skills affect listening, problem solving, reading comprehension, study skills, decision making, oral and written language, and social relationships. 

    @2002 Speaking of Speech.com, Inc.